# 用户指南 (User Guide)

# MQTT 认证设置

EMQ 消息服务器认证由一系列认证插件(Plugin)提供,系统支持按用户名密码、ClientID 或匿名认证。

系统默认开启匿名认证(anonymous),通过加载认证插件可开启的多个认证模块组成认证链:

           ----------------           ----------------           ------------
Client --> | Username认证 | -ignore-> | ClientID认证 | -ignore-> | 匿名认证 |
           ----------------           ----------------           ------------
                  |                         |                         |
                 \|/                       \|/                       \|/
            allow | deny              allow | deny              allow | deny

提示

EMQ 2.0 消息服务器还提供了 MySQL、PostgreSQL、Redis、MongoDB、HTTP、LDAP 认证插件。

# 开启匿名认证

etc/emq.conf 配置启用匿名认证:

## Allow Anonymous authentication
mqtt.allow_anonymous = true

EMQ 2.0 版本提供的认证插件包括:

插件说明
emq_auth_clientid (opens new window)ClientId 认证/鉴权插件
emq_auth_username (opens new window)用户名密码认证/鉴权插件
emq_auth_ldap (opens new window)LDAP 认证/鉴权插件
emq_auth_http (opens new window)HTTP 认证/鉴权插件
emq_auth_mysql (opens new window)MySQ L 认证/鉴权插件
emq_auth_pgsql (opens new window)Postgre 认证/鉴权插件
emq_auth_redis (opens new window)Redis 认证/鉴权插件
emq_auth_mongo (opens new window)MongoDB 认证/鉴权插件

# 用户名密码认证

基于 MQTT 登录用户名(username)、密码(password)认证。

etc/plugins/emq_auth_username.conf 中配置默认用户:

auth.user.$N.username = admin
auth.user.$N.password = public

启用 emq_auth_username (opens new window) 插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_username

使用 ./bin/emqttd_ctl users 命令添加用户:

$ ./bin/emqttd_ctl users add \<Username> \<Password>

# ClientId 认证

基于 MQTT 客户端 ID 认证。

etc/plugins/emq_auth_clientid.conf:

auth.client.$N.clientid = clientid
auth.client.$N.password = passwd

启用 emq_auth_clientid (opens new window) 插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_clientid

# LDAP 插件认证

etc/plugins/emq_auth_ldap.conf 配置 LDAP 参数:

auth.ldap.servers = 127.0.0.1

auth.ldap.port = 389

auth.ldap.timeout = 30

auth.ldap.user_dn = uid=%u,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com

auth.ldap.ssl = false

启用 LDAP 认证插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_ldap

# HTTP 插件认证

etc/plugins/emq_auth_http.conf 配置 'super_req', 'auth_req':

## Variables: %u = username, %c = clientid, %a = ipaddress, %P = password, %t = topic

auth.http.auth_req = http://127.0.0.1:8080/mqtt/auth
auth.http.auth_req.method = post
auth.http.auth_req.params = clientid=%c,username=%u,password=%P

auth.http.super_req = http://127.0.0.1:8080/mqtt/superuser
auth.http.super_req.method = post
auth.http.super_req.params = clientid=%c,username=%u

启用 HTTP 认证插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_http

# MySQL 插件认证

通过 MySQL 数据库表认证,可创建如下的 'mqtt_user' 表:

CREATE TABLE `mqtt_user` (
  `id` int(11) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `username` varchar(100) DEFAULT NULL,
  `password` varchar(100) DEFAULT NULL,
  `salt` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `is_superuser` tinyint(1) DEFAULT 0,
  `created` datetime DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  UNIQUE KEY `mqtt_username` (`username`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

etc/plugins/emq_auth_mysql.conf 配置 'super_query', 'auth_query', 'password_hash':

## Mysql Server
auth.mysql.server = 127.0.0.1:3306

## Mysql Pool Size
auth.mysql.pool = 8

## Mysql Username
## auth.mysql.username =

## Mysql Password
## auth.mysql.password =

## Mysql Database
auth.mysql.database = mqtt

## Variables: %u = username, %c = clientid

## Authentication Query: select password only
auth.mysql.auth_query = select password from mqtt_user where username = '%u' limit 1

## Password hash: plain, md5, sha, sha256, pbkdf2
auth.mysql.password_hash = sha256

## %% Superuser Query
auth.mysql.super_query = select is_superuser from mqtt_user where username = '%u' limit 1

提示

如果系统已有 MQTT 认证表,可通过配置'auth_query'查询语句集成。

启用 MySQL 认证插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_mysql

# Postgre 插件认证

通过 PostgreSQL 数据库表认证,可创建如下的 'mqtt_user' 表:

CREATE TABLE mqtt_user (
  id SERIAL primary key,
  is_superuser boolean,
  username character varying(100),
  password character varying(100),
  salt character varying(40)
);

etc/plugins/emq_auth_pgsql.conf 配置 'auth_query'、'password_hash':

## Postgre Server
auth.pgsql.server = 127.0.0.1:5432

auth.pgsql.pool = 8

auth.pgsql.username = root

#auth.pgsql.password =

auth.pgsql.database = mqtt

auth.pgsql.encoding = utf8

auth.pgsql.ssl = false

## Variables: %u = username, %c = clientid, %a = ipaddress

## Authentication Query: select password only
auth.pgsql.auth_query = select password from mqtt_user where username = '%u' limit 1

## Password hash: plain, md5, sha, sha256, pbkdf2
auth.pgsql.password_hash = sha256

## sha256 with salt prefix
## auth.pgsql.password_hash = salt sha256

## sha256 with salt suffix
## auth.pgsql.password_hash = sha256 salt

## Superuser Query
auth.pgsql.super_query = select is_superuser from mqtt_user where username = '%u' limit 1

启用 Postgre 认证插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_pgsql

# Redis 插件认证

Redis 认证。MQTT 用户记录存储在 Redis Hash, 键值: "mqtt_user:<Username>"

etc/plugins/emq_auth_redis.conf 设置 'super_cmd'、'auth_cmd'、'password_hash':

## Redis Server
auth.redis.server = 127.0.0.1:6379

## Redis Pool Size
auth.redis.pool = 8

## Redis Database
auth.redis.database = 0

## Redis Password
## auth.redis.password =

## Variables: %u = username, %c = clientid

## Authentication Query Command
auth.redis.auth_cmd = HGET mqtt_user:%u password

## Password hash: plain, md5, sha, sha256, pbkdf2
auth.redis.password_hash = sha256

## Superuser Query Command
auth.redis.super_cmd = HGET mqtt_user:%u is_superuser

启用 Redis 认证插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_redis

# MongoDB 插件认证

按 MongoDB 用户集合认证,例如创建 'mqtt_user' 集合:

{
    username: "user",
    password: "password hash",
    is_superuser: boolean (true, false),
    created: "datetime"
}

etc/plugins/emq_auth_mongo.conf 设置 'super_query'、'auth_query':

## Mongo Server
auth.mongo.server = 127.0.0.1:27017

## Mongo Pool Size
auth.mongo.pool = 8

## Mongo User
## auth.mongo.user =

## Mongo Password
## auth.mongo.password =

## Mongo Database
auth.mongo.database = mqtt

## auth_query
auth.mongo.auth_query.collection = mqtt_user

auth.mongo.auth_query.password_field = password

auth.mongo.auth_query.password_hash = sha256

auth.mongo.auth_query.selector = username=%u

## super_query
auth.mongo.super_query.collection = mqtt_user

auth.mongo.super_query.super_field = is_superuser

auth.mongo.super_query.selector = username=%u

启用 MongoDB 认证插件:

./bin/emqttd_ctl plugins load emq_auth_mongo

# 访问控制(ACL)

EMQ 消息服务器通过 ACL(Access Control List) 实现 MQTT 客户端访问控制。

ACL 访问控制规则定义:

允许(Allow)|拒绝(Deny) 谁(Who) 订阅(Subscribe)|发布(Publish) 主题列表(Topics)

MQTT 客户端发起订阅/发布请求时,EMQ 消息服务器的访问控制模块,会逐条匹配 ACL 规则,直到匹配成功为止:

          ---------              ---------              ---------
Client -> | Rule1 | --nomatch--> | Rule2 | --nomatch--> | Rule3 | --> Default
          ---------              ---------              ---------
              |                      |                      |
            match                  match                  match
             \|/                    \|/                    \|/
        allow | deny           allow | deny           allow | deny

# 默认访问控制设置

EMQ 消息服务器默认访问控制,在 etc/emq.conf 中设置:

## ACL nomatch
mqtt.acl_nomatch = allow

## Default ACL File
mqtt.acl_file = etc/acl.conf

ACL 规则定义在 etc/acl.conf,EMQ 启动时加载到内存:

%% Allow 'dashboard' to subscribe '$SYS/#'
{allow, {user, "dashboard"}, subscribe, ["$SYS/#"]}.

%% Allow clients from localhost to subscribe any topics
{allow, {ipaddr, "127.0.0.1"}, pubsub, ["$SYS/#", "#"]}.

%% Deny clients to subscribe '$SYS#' and '#'
{deny, all, subscribe, ["$SYS/#", {eq, "#"}]}.

%% Allow all by default
{allow, all}.

# HTTP 插件访问控制

HTTP API 实现访问控制: https://github.com/emqtt/emq_auth_http (opens new window)

配置 etc/plugins/emq_auth_http.conf, 启用 HTTP 认证插件后:

## 'access' parameter: sub = 1, pub = 2
auth.http.acl_req = http://127.0.0.1:8080/mqtt/acl
auth.http.acl_req.method = get
auth.http.acl_req.params = access=%A,username=%u,clientid=%c,ipaddr=%a,topic=%t

# MySQL 插件访问控制

MySQL 插件访问控制,通过 mqtt_acl 表定义 ACL 规则:

CREATE TABLE `mqtt_acl` (
  `id` int(11) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `allow` int(1) DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '0: deny, 1: allow',
  `ipaddr` varchar(60) DEFAULT NULL COMMENT 'IpAddress',
  `username` varchar(100) DEFAULT NULL COMMENT 'Username',
  `clientid` varchar(100) DEFAULT NULL COMMENT 'ClientId',
  `access` int(2) NOT NULL COMMENT '1: subscribe, 2: publish, 3: pubsub',
  `topic` varchar(100) NOT NULL DEFAULT '' COMMENT 'Topic Filter',
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

INSERT INTO mqtt_acl (id, allow, ipaddr, username, clientid, access, topic)
VALUES
    (1,1,NULL,'$all',NULL,2,'#'),
    (2,0,NULL,'$all',NULL,1,'$SYS/#'),
    (3,0,NULL,'$all',NULL,1,'eq #'),
    (5,1,'127.0.0.1',NULL,NULL,2,'$SYS/#'),
    (6,1,'127.0.0.1',NULL,NULL,2,'#'),
    (7,1,NULL,'dashboard',NULL,1,'$SYS/#');

etc/plugins/emq_auth_mysql.conf 配置 'acl_query' 与 'acl_nomatch':

## ACL Query Command
auth.mysql.acl_query = select allow, ipaddr, username, clientid, access, topic from mqtt_acl where ipaddr = '%a' or username = '%u' or username = '$all' or clientid = '%c'

# Postgre 插件访问控制

PostgreSQL 插件访问控制,通过 mqtt_acl 表定义 ACL 规则:

CREATE TABLE mqtt_acl (
  id SERIAL primary key,
  allow integer,
  ipaddr character varying(60),
  username character varying(100),
  clientid character varying(100),
  access  integer,
  topic character varying(100)
);

INSERT INTO mqtt_acl (id, allow, ipaddr, username, clientid, access, topic)
VALUES
    (1,1,NULL,'$all',NULL,2,'#'),
    (2,0,NULL,'$all',NULL,1,'$SYS/#'),
    (3,0,NULL,'$all',NULL,1,'eq #'),
    (5,1,'127.0.0.1',NULL,NULL,2,'$SYS/#'),
    (6,1,'127.0.0.1',NULL,NULL,2,'#'),
    (7,1,NULL,'dashboard',NULL,1,'$SYS/#');

etc/plugins/emq_auth_pgsql.conf 设置 'acl_query' 与 'acl_nomatch':

## ACL Query. Comment this query, the acl will be disabled.
auth.pgsql.acl_query = select allow, ipaddr, username, clientid, access, topic from mqtt_acl where ipaddr = '%a' or username = '%u' or username = '$all' or clientid = '%c'

# Redis 插件访问控制

Redis Hash 存储一个 MQTT 客户端的访问控制规则:

HSET mqtt_acl:\<username> topic1 1
HSET mqtt_acl:\<username> topic2 2
HSET mqtt_acl:\<username> topic3 3

etc/plugins/emq_auth_redis.conf 配置 'acl_cmd' 与 'acl_nomatch':

## ACL Query Command
auth.redis.acl_cmd = HGETALL mqtt_acl:%u

# MongoDB 插件访问控制

MongoDB 数据库创建 mqtt_acl 集合:

{
    username: "username",
    clientid: "clientid",
    publish: ["topic1", "topic2", ...],
    subscribe: ["subtop1", "subtop2", ...],
    pubsub: ["topic/#", "topic1", ...]
}

mqtt_acl 集合插入数据,例如:

db.mqtt_acl.insert({username: "test", publish: ["t/1", "t/2"], subscribe: ["user/%u", "client/%c"]})
db.mqtt_acl.insert({username: "admin", pubsub: ["#"]})

etc/plugins/emq_auth_mongo.conf 配置 'acl_query' 与 'acl_nomatch':

## acl_query
auth.mongo.acl_query.collection = mqtt_user

auth.mongo.acl_query.selector = username=%u

# MQTT 发布订阅

MQTT 是为移动互联网、物联网设计的轻量发布订阅模式的消息服务器:

image

EMQ 消息服务器安装启动后,任何设备或终端的 MQTT 客户端,可通过 MQTT 协议连接到服务器,发布订阅消息方式互通。

MQTT 协议客户端库: https://github.com/mqtt/mqtt.github.io/wiki/libraries (opens new window)

例如,mosquitto_sub/pub 命令行发布订阅消息:

mosquitto_sub -t topic -q 2
mosquitto_pub -t topic -q 1 -m "Hello, MQTT!"

MQTT V3.1.1 版本协议规范: http://docs.oasis-open.org/mqtt/mqtt/v3.1.1/mqtt-v3.1.1.html (opens new window)

EMQ 消息服务器的 MQTT 协议 TCP 监听器,可在 etc/emq.conf 文件中设置:

## TCP Listener: 1883, 127.0.0.1:1883, ::1:1883
listener.tcp.external = 1883

## Size of acceptor pool
listener.tcp.external.acceptors = 8

## Maximum number of concurrent clients
listener.tcp.external.max_clients = 1024

MQTT/SSL 监听器,缺省端口 8883:

## SSL Listener: 8883, 127.0.0.1:8883, ::1:8883
listener.ssl.external = 8883

## Size of acceptor pool
listener.ssl.external.acceptors = 4

## Maximum number of concurrent clients
listener.ssl.external.max_clients = 512

# HTTP 发布接口

EMQ 消息服务器提供了一个 HTTP 发布接口,应用服务器或 Web 服务器可通过该接口发布 MQTT 消息:

HTTP POST http://host:8080/mqtt/publish

Web 服务器例如 PHP/Java/Python/NodeJS 或 Ruby on Rails,可通过 HTTP POST 请求发布 MQTT 消息:

curl -v --basic -u user:passwd -d "qos=1&retain=0&topic=/a/b/c&message=hello from http..." -k http://localhost:8080/mqtt/publish

HTTP 接口参数:

参数说明
clientMQTT 客户端 ID
qosQoS: 0
retainRetain: 0
topic主题(Topic)
message消息

提示

HTTP 发布接口采用 Basic 认证 该接口在 v2.3-beta.2 版本变更为: 'api/v2/mqtt/publish', 详见文档: /rest

# MQTT WebSocket 连接

EMQ 消息服务器支持 MQTT WebSocket 连接,Web 浏览器可直接通过 MQTT 协议连接服务器:

WebSocket URI:ws(s)://host:8083/mqtt
Sec-WebSocket-Protocol:'mqttv3.1' or 'mqttv3.1.1'

Dashboard 插件提供了一个 MQTT WebSocket 连接的测试页面:

http://127.0.0.1:18083/websocket.html

EMQ 通过内嵌的 HTTP 服务器,实现 MQTT/WebSocket,etc/emq.conf 设置:

## MQTT/WebSocket Listener
listener.ws.external = 8083
listener.ws.external.acceptors = 4
listener.ws.external.max_clients = 64

# $SYS-系统主题

EMQ 消息服务器周期性发布自身运行状态、MQTT 协议统计、客户端上下线状态到 $SYS/ 开头系统主题。

$SYS 主题路径以 "$SYS/brokers/{node}/" 开头,'${node}' 是 Erlang 节点名称:

$SYS/brokers/emqttd@127.0.0.1/version

$SYS/brokers/emqttd@host2/uptime

提示

默认只允许 localhost 的 MQTT 客户端订阅 $SYS 主题,可通过 etc/acl.config 修改访问控制规则。

$SYS 系统消息发布周期,通过 etc/emq.conf 配置:

## System Interval of publishing broker $SYS Messages
mqtt.broker.sys_interval = 60

# 服务器版本、启动时间与描述消息

主题说明
$SYS/brokers集群节点列表
$SYS/brokers/${node}/versionEMQ 服务器版本
$SYS/brokers/${node}/uptimeEMQ 服务器启动时间
$SYS/brokers/${node}/datetimeEMQ 服务器时间
$SYS/brokers/${node}/sysdescrEMQ 服务器描述

# MQTT 客户端上下线状态消息

$SYS 主题前缀: $SYS/brokers/${node}/clients/

主题(Topic)数据(JSON)说明
${clientid}/connected{ipaddress: "127.0.0.1", username: "test", session: false, version: 3, connack: 0, ts: 1432648482}Publish when a client connected
${clientid}/disconnected{reason: "keepalive_timeout", username: "test", ts: 1432749431}Publish when a client disconnected

'connected' 消息 JSON 数据:

{
    ipaddress: "127.0.0.1",
    username:  "test",
    session:   false,
    protocol:  3,
    connack:   0,
    ts:        1432648482
}

'disconnected' 消息 JSON 数据:

{
    reason: normal,
    ts:     1432648486
}

# Statistics - 系统统计消息

系统主题前缀: $SYS/brokers/${node}/stats/

# Clients - 客户端统计

主题(Topic)说明
clients/count当前客户端总数
clients/max最大客户端数量

# Sessions - 会话统计

主题(Topic)说明
sessions/count当前会话总数
sessions/max最大会话数量

# Subscriptions - 订阅统计

主题(Topic)说明
subscriptions/count当前订阅总数
subscriptions/max最大订阅数量

# Topics - 主题统计

主题(Topic)说明
topics/count当前 Topic 总数(跨节点)
topics/maxMax number of topics

# Metrics - 收发流量/报文/消息统计

系统主题(Topic)前缀: $SYS/brokers/${node}/metrics/

# 收发流量统计

主题(Topic)说明
bytes/received累计接收流量
bytes/sent累计发送流量

# MQTT 报文收发统计

主题(Topic)说明
packets/received累计接收 MQTT 报文
packets/sent累计发送 MQTT 报文
packets/connect累计接收 MQTT CONNECT 报文
packets/connack累计发送 MQTT CONNACK 报文
packets/publish/received累计接收 MQTT PUBLISH 报文
packets/publish/sent累计发送 MQTT PUBLISH 报文
packets/subscribe累计接收 MQTT SUBSCRIBE 报文
packets/suback累计发送 MQTT SUBACK 报文
packets/unsubscribe累计接收 MQTT UNSUBSCRIBE 报文
packets/unsuback累计发送 MQTT UNSUBACK 报文
packets/pingreq累计接收 MQTT PINGREQ 报文
packets/pingresp累计发送 MQTT PINGRESP 报文
packets/disconnect累计接收 MQTT DISCONNECT 报文

# MQTT 消息收发统计

主题(Topic)说明
messages/received累计接收消息
messages/sent累计发送消息
messages/retainedRetained 消息总数
messages/dropped丢弃消息总数

# Alarms - 系统告警

系统主题(Topic)前缀: $SYS/brokers/${node}/alarms/

主题(Topic)说明
${alarmId}/alert新产生告警
${alarmId}/clear清除告警

# Sysmon - 系统监控

系统主题(Topic)前缀: $SYS/brokers/${node}/sysmon/

主题(Topic)说明
long_gcGC 时间过长警告
long_schedule调度时间过长警告
large_heapHeap 内存占用警告
busy_portPort 忙警告
busy_dist_portDist Port 忙警告

# 追踪

EMQ 消息服务器支持追踪来自某个客户端(Client)的全部报文,或者发布到某个主题(Topic)的全部消息。

追踪客户端(Client):

./bin/emqttd_ctl trace client "clientid" "trace_clientid.log"

追踪主题(Topic):

./bin/emqttd_ctl trace topic "topic" "trace_topic.log"

查询追踪:

./bin/emqttd_ctl trace list

停止追踪:

./bin/emqttd_ctl trace client "clientid" off

./bin/emqttd_ctl trace topic "topic" off